Now a days Broccoli Farming is a good source of income of our Farmers. farmers needs to convert traditional farming to modern farming. China is a world leader in broccoli production. It is produced in many places in India. In Maharashtra, broccoli is grown in small areas.
Dietary importance of broccoli
Broccoli extract is used as a beverage to keep the body healthy. In India, green salad of broccoli is mainly used in the diet. Broccoli contains water, calories, carbohydrates, sugars, fiber as well as fats, proteins, vitamins and various minerals. Broccoli packs contain important anti-oxidants. This makes it possible to prevent various types of cancer.
The production of broccoli is very good in cold weather. It can also be grown in areas where rainfall is low during the monsoon season. 20 to 25 degrees per day. Temperature is required for growth of seedlings and temperature of 15 to 20 degrees is required at the time of formation of seedlings. A day temperature of 20 to 25 degrees is required for seedlings to grow in a greenhouse.
At the time of planting, the night and day temperature should be controlled at 15 to 20 degrees and 70 percent respectively
Land for Broccoli Farming
Sandy, medium, black, well-drained soil is good for this crop. Land level should be between 5.5 to 6.5 At the time of last weeding, 12 to 15 tons of well decomposed manure per acre should be mixed in the soil. For greenhouse planting, the greenhouse medium should be treated with formalin. Then 60 cm. Keep wide, 30 cm high and 40 cm gap between two mattress pads. A total of 100 mattress pads of 40 meters length per acre are produced in the greenhouse.
Varieties of Broccoli
There are green pots, purple pots, pale pots and white pots in broccoli crop.
In India, only darker varieties of green are more popular.
The variety ‘Palam Samrudhi’ is good for cultivation in Maharashtra and it gives high yield.
This green lump weighs 300 to 400 grams.
The purple varieties can tolerate extreme cold and are harvested in winter.
This variety is also used in salads.
The pits of this medium height variety are very dense and dark green in color.
how to do planting in broccoli farming
There are about 26,660 seedlings per acre.
Planting should be done in the afternoon.
Then water the seedlings by drip irrigation.
When planting, the roots of the seedlings should be immersed in Azotobacter bactericide solution.
Planting in greenhouse is 30 by 30 cm on each mattress. Should be done at a distance.
First of all, for Broccoli Farming the soil should be examined to find out the main and micronutrients available in the soil. It is necessary to apply 60 kg N, 40 kg P and 70 kg K per acre.
According to soil test reports, molybdenum and boron are micronutrients released from the soil.
Molybdenum, a micronutrient deficiency, is caused by the scratching of the broccoli leaves.
This deformity is especially noticeable in acidic soils (below Samu 5.5).
This fly lays eggs in the leaf cells. Stunts plant growth.
If the top of the plant is eaten by larvae, it does not catch the larvae.
Malathion (50 EC) 20 ml. Spray every 10 liters of water at intervals of 15 days.
Green or white larvae absorb leaf sap, As a result, the leaves become wrinkled, turn yellow and dry out over time.
For control 0.05% Malathion 50 etc. 3 to 4 sprays of C Nimark 4% after 10-12 days.
Square Dotted Kite
The larvae live on the underside of the leaves, make holes in the leaves and eat the chlorophyll in the leaves.
This pest is effective from September to March.
Apply Bt bacterial pesticide at the rate of 10 g per 10 liters of water as soon as two larvae per plant appear on the crop.
Trichogramma should be released at the rate of one lakh per hectare.
Fenverlet 20 EC 50 gm a. Income. Spray at the rate of 15 days per hectare.
Harvesting and production
Depending on the variety, broccoli can be harvested in 60 to 70 days from planting.
Harvesting should be done when the piles are 8 to 15 cm in diameter for sale and to get good price.
Pits are usually 15 cm. Keep a long stick and cut.
After removing the main stalk, there is space to feed the stalks coming from the leaf litter below.
The average weight of each pack should be 300 to 400 grams.
The area of 40 Gunthas per acre yields about 8 to 9 tons of Broccoli.
Pre-cooling of the pots to remove heat from the piles after harvesting is done at zero degree centigrade. It needs to be done at a temperature of 2 degrees Celsius. Pits should be cleaned by grading according to size or weight.
Fill it up to 3 or 4 layers in a corrugated box with holes for ventilation. Packed baskets should be transported overnight (due to low temperature) or transported through crates by lowering the temperature by placing ice around in a plastic tray.
After harvesting, the seedlings can remain in good condition for up to two days at room temperature.
However, after pre-cooling, the pits can be stored at a temperature of zero degrees Celsius and 95 to 98 percent relative humidity for 2 to 3 weeks in good condition.